Images Of Poliomyelitis
A Critique Of Scientific Literature
|Main Article: Pesticides And Polio||The Fallacy Of Vaccination (Pitcairn, J., 1911)|
|U.S. Polio And Vaccination Timeline|
|The Salk Vaccine||Insights into Cancer and "Simian Virus" Vaccination Issues (3 articles)|
|DDT Dosage In The Early 1950s||Transmissible, Arsenic-Caused Cancer (Carrel, A., 10/1925)|
|DDT/Polio vs Clioquinol/SMON||Transmissible, Indol-Caused Cancer (Carrel, A., 11/1925)|
|Polio And Endogenous Virus? (Scobey, R., M.D., 1954)||The Mechanism Of The Sarcoma (Carrel, A., 6/1925)|
|Obstructions To Investigation (Scobey, R., M.D., 1952)|
|Public Health Law And Polio (Scobey, R., M.D., 1951)||West Nile Virus Encephalitis|
|Clinical Intoxication From DDT (Biskind, M., M.D., 1951)|
|DDT Poisoning (Drs. Biskind & Bieber, 1949)||Pellagra: Produced By Berkefeld Filtrates (Harris, W., 1948)|
|DDT Poisoning And Virus X" (Biskind, M., M.D., 1949)||Miscellaneous Epidemiology|
|F.D.R. At Campobello||The Life Expectancies (Rodale, R.I., 1955)|
|NYC 1916: Dr. Emerson's Demographics||Toxic Philosophy|
|The Massachusetts Polio Epidemics Of 1908||Glossary|
|Pesticide Introductions And Polio||Non-Toxic Links|
|Post-Polio And Environmental Factors||NoSpray Coalition (New York)|
|A New Definition For Polio||RedFlagsWeekly|
CNS Poisons* and CNS Disease Correlate
Through a Long and Complex Curve
*These are the predominant persistent pesticides.
"The lesson to be learned from Swayze's insistence that infantile paralysis is not a contagious disease is that, nevertheless according to the law, it is a contagious disease, and that it is illegal to consider it otherwise."
"Poliomyelitis is unique in that it is the only disease in the history of medicine in which a theory, and not an established fact as to its cause, has become incorporated into the public health law."
"Although poliomyelitis is legally a contagious disease... every attempt has failed conclusively to prove this mandatory requirement of the public health law... Hoyne points out... the startling revelation that the etiologic agent of the disease is still unknown..."
"...when this disease was legally made a communicable disease... funds for poliomyelitis research were from then on designated for the investigation of the infectious theory only."
Ralph R. Scobey, M.D., "Is The Public Health Law Responsible For The Poliomyelitis Mystery?"
Archives of Pediatrics, Vol 68, p220 (May, 1951)
"In 1907, [during] an epidemic of poliomyelitis... no infant who was fed exclusively on the breast developed poliomyelitis."
"Inclusion bodies have been defined as products of virus activity or the elementary virus bodies themselves. Inclusion bodies have been found in poisoned humans and experimental animals."
"No intensive studies have been made... to determine whether or not the so-called virus of poliomyelitis... simply results from an exogenous [external] factor or factors..."
"Medical studies have shown repeatedly that paralytic diseases in... [domestic animals] occur simultaneously in districts where epidemics of poliomyelitis are prevalent."
"Poliomyelitis investigations... have been confined exclusively to virus studies."
Ralph R. Scobey, M.D., "The Poison Cause of Poliomyelitis"
Archives of Pediatrics, Vol 69, p172 (April, 1952)
"There is much evidence to indicate that the poliomyelitis virus is synthesized or activated within the human body instead of entering it as commonly assumed."
"Carrel (1925) was able to produce tumors resembling [exactly] Rous' sarcoma and transmissible by cell-free [Berkfeld] filtrates with indol, arsenic, or tar in chicken embryo. Carrel's observations have been confirmed by other workers. Fischer (1926), by treating cultures of normal cells with arsenic obtained on one occasion a filtrable virus capable of causing tumors."
Ralph R. Scobey, M.D., "Poliomyeltis Caused by Exogenous Virus?",
Science, v71 (1954)
"Harris (1913) was able to inject Berkefeld filtered tissue material from pellagra victims into monkeys to cause a corresponding disease in these animals. He concluded from these experiments that a virus was present in the injected material and that it was the cause of pellagra. If the work of Harris had been followed exclusively, various strains of this "virus" might have been discovered and a vaccine, effective in experimental animals, might have been developed, as in the case of poliomyelitis. Today, as a result of unlimited research, however, we know conclusively that pellagra is not caused by a virus but rather that it is a vitamin deficiency disease. It is obvious that if the investigations of pellagra had been restricted to the virus theory, it would still be a mystery."
Ralph R. Scobey, M.D., "The Poison Cause of Poliomyelitis"
Archives of Pediatrics, Vol 69, p172 (April, 1952)
A highly esteemed poliovirologist characterizes laboratory "proofs" of virus causality:
"...the highly specialized, neurotropically fixed virus, which has been maintained in the past by intracerebral passage in rhesus monkeys, is more likely a laboratory artefact..."
Claus W. Jungeblut, Ph.D., Journal of Pediatrics, Vol 37, p109 (July, 1950),
From, Scobey, Archives of Pediatrics (April, 1952)
"...no other portals [aside from intracerebral injection] could be satisfactorily used to introduce the challenge inoculum [purified poliovirus solution] because rhesus monkeys, which have been the chief experimental animals, succumb... not at all when virus is ingested by mouth."
"In these experiments [,using the more poliovirus-sensitive chimpanzees], the conventional method of testing for immunity to poliomyelitis by intracerebral inoculation of virus has not been attempted. It is likely that such a vigorous challenge of placing virus in intimate contact with susceptible cells might have broken through the immunity which was detectable by the more delicate approach [oral feeding of high quantities of poliovirus] used in our experiments."
Joseph L. Melnick, Dorothy M. Horstman
"Active Immunity To Poliomyelitis In Chimps"
Journal Of Experimental Medicine, 85:217 (1947)
"The experiments of Clark, Frazier, and Amoss show that after intravenous inoculation in monkeys, the virus [filtrate] of poliomyelitis disappears from the blood within 72 hours; and other observations have shown that it is only after enormous intravenous doses of the virus that the monkey develops the disease. Smaller doses intravenously fail to produce any disturbance."
"If injected with 250 to 500 cc [1 to 2 cups!] of the virus by a similar route the animal succumbed to the disease."
George Draper, Acute Poliomyelitis (1917)
1 to 2 cups injected into a 20 lb Rhesus monkey is equal to 7 to 14 cups injected into a 150 lb man.
"One of the landmarks in the study of infectious diseases was the development of the Henle-Koch postulates of causation. They were originally drawn up for bacteria and protozoa, but were revised in 1937 by Rivers and again in 1982 by Evans in attempts to accommodate the special problem of proving disease causation by viruses. The problem is still difficult, especially when viruses are considered as causative of chronic diseases (including several of the hepatitides), neoplastic diseases, and slowly progressive neurological diseases. Because most such diseases cannot be reproduced in experimental animals, virologists have had to evaluate causation indirectly via 'guilt by association'..."
Fields Virology, p23 (1996)
Thomas Rivers (also mentioned above) is a primary player in virology. While experimenting with intramuscular injections of brain emulsions in 8 monkeys, he unexpectedly found that 2 of the monkeys acquired neurological disease similar to polio. At this point, he did not criticize the procedure called "inoculation" but rather, in order to accommodate this special problem, he wrote:
"...from reports in the literature it appears that monkeys may suffer from spontaneous demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system."
Thomas Rivers, et al, Journal of Experimental Medicine (1953) v58p51
"The orthodox view is that this [poliovirus] antibody is a result of a process of widespread latent immunization by subclinical infections with the specific virus. There is no direct evidence whatever in favour of this hypothesis... As far as we are aware, there is no fully substantiated record in the literature of an individual whose serum at first containing no poliomyelitis antibody later developed it in adequately measured amount, and therefore no indication of the nature of the event responsible for the change... It is concluded that 'poliomyelitus antibody' is not a result of exposure to or infection by the virus of epidemic poliomyelitis... [In addition to this study, h]ere we need only refer to Harmon and Harkins (1936), which showed that of 183 convalescent sera 10% failed to neutralize the virus. As a control series they quote the results of examination of 512 `normal` sera... 'These observations ... cast doubt upon the importance of a single attack of poliomyelitis for the production of antiviral substance'... Brodie et al (1937 and 1938) cover very much the same ground... [other studies include...]"
"Various workers have, in fact, shown that sera from patients recovered from paralytic poliomyelitis may be completely lacking in neutralizing antibody."
F.M. Burnet and A.V. Jackson
"Poliomyeltis: The Significance Of Neutralizing Antibodies In Human Sera"
Journal of Experimental Biology (1939) p261
"It was even known by 1945 that DDT is stored in the body fat of mammals and appears in the milk. With this foreknowledge the series of catastrophic events that followed the most intensive campaign of mass poisoning in known human history, should not have surprised the experts. Yet, far from admitting a causal relationship [for polio and other diseases] so obvious that in any other field of biology it would be instantly accepted, virtually the entire apparatus of communication, lay and scientific alike, has been devoted to denying, concealing, suppressing, distorting and attempts to convert into its opposite, the overwhelming evidence. Libel, slander and economic boycott have not been overlooked in this campaign."
Morton S. Biskind, M.D., "Public Health Aspects Of The New Insecticides"
American Journal of Digestive Diseases, Vol 20, p330 (1953)
...the epidemics grew steadily worse each year, with the number of new cases climbing from 5,000 in 1933 to 59,000 in 1952. Salvation came in 1954 with the Salk vaccine..."
"A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America"
The New York Times, March 4, 1999 (Film review)
Needless to say, the charge that DDT predisposed to poliomyelitis was dropped after the disease was controlled through the use of vaccines. ...such irresponsible claims [that pesticides cause polio and other diseases] could produce great harm and, if taken seriously, even interfere with scientific search for true causes and realistic means of preventing the conditions in question.
Wayland J. Hayes, Jr., Edward R. Laws, Jr.
Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, (1991)
This research is presented to foment discussion that may be needed regarding disease images. It is not presented as an authoritative and definitive source of information and corrections are welcome. The reader must be informed that all medical issues should be dealt with in an appropriate manner by consulting a knowledgeable and qualified doctor.
My professional background includes both chemical engineering and the arts. A fascination with the politics of medicine began early after being exposed to the then prevalent medical procedures: fluoroscopy, tonsilectomy, and mercury fillings in perfect teeth as "preventative" dentistry. Experiences like these are considered normal, and compared to some others, even fortunate.
In 1985, I unintentionally began to suspect that there was a correlation between the last great polio epidemic and the last great inundation of DDT. After a few hours of research I was surprised to find several confirming correlations. Further research impressed a lawyer and an editor, but they wanted more research and sources.
I wrote to and received encouragement from the late, great, Dr. Mendelsohn, whose most famous book is The Confessions Of A Medical Heretic. I received a criticism from the esteemed Dr. Wootan who was featured on 60 Minutes following the controversial removal of his medical license. He motivated me to think more critically of my "discovery." Dr. Wootan has written articles about such heretical things as the normalcy of fever in illness (see Mothering Magazine). His position, incidentally, is not so unusual, as it is recognized by orthodoxy as a minority view (see Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, "Fever").
Research was shelved as a private revelation until 1997, when, after the publication of Duesberg's Inventing the AIDS Virus, historical and biochemical data were deeply researched, and by 1998, a theory was concluded, that industrial neurotoxins caused the polio epidemics. Thanks to Peter Duesberg for revealing virology's more obvious contradictions.
Later, the statistical numbers were found, enabling the generation of comparative graphs of polio incidence and pesticide production. The heretical scientific articles from the 1950s were discovered last.
This research was initially triggered in 1985 by an anti-vaccination pamphlet written by a homeopathist (apologies, no source). His observations were that vaccinations arrived after the decline of polio and that polio was a disease going through its natural epidemic cycle. That critique of orthodoxy, which I didn't entirely agree with, matured into some light research (1991, Manhattan). I opened Wesbster's Dictionary, Encyclopedia Britannica, and went to the NYPL to download a computer listings of periodicals, then a few years later the textbooks on biochemistry, virology, epidemiology, and toxicolgy. Much later, rare numeric data was found, herein displayed in the pesticide-polio graphs, and lastly, I found the heretic orthodox writers, Biskind, Scobey, et al., a decade of missing history. Thus, truly independent researchers, half a century apart, with different methodologies have crossed the same paths, made similar conclusions, and revealed vast differences between the single public view and the various scientific views.
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